Cancer Markers Test
A tumor marker is a substance that can be produced by human body in response to cancer, or can be produced by the cancer itself. Tumor makers are generally used to evaluate the patient's response to treatments(drugs) or to monitorrecurrence. Tumor makers can help a doctor to determine prognosis or proper treatments.
Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), a molecular chaperone at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is a master regulator of ER stress and an important survival factor for cell. GRP78 protein level is highly elevated in malignant tumors and correlates with severe pathological grade and poor prognosis. GRP78 appears of great interest as prognostic marker and therapeutic target for various types of cancer.
COX-2 is involved in converting procarcinogens to carcinogens, and thus plays a role in initiating tumor formation. In addition, COX-2 is a key regulating enzyme in the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which is important in promoting tumorigenesis. COX-2 overexpression inhibits apoptosis, and it has been implicated in angiogenesis.
The AKT kinases are key intermediates of signaling pathways that regulate cellular processes controlling cell size/growth, proliferation, survival, glucose metabolism, genome stability, and neo-vascularization
β-catenin has two distinct functions, namely, maintaining cell-to-cell adhesion and mediating the Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction pathway, which plays pivotal roles in embryogenesis and in malignant transformation of cells. The β-catenin/Tcf complex facilitates transcription of target genes that encode effectors for activation of cell proliferation and invasion and inhibition of apoptosis.
Chemotherapy resistance to in cancer cells is mainly mediated by overexpression ofP-glycoprotein (Pgp), a plasma membrane ATP-binding transporter which extrudes cytotoxic drugs at the expense of ATP hydrolysis.
VI. AKT Thr308
The activity of the protein kinase AKT is frequently well regulated in cancer and is an important role in the growth and survival of tumour cells. AKT activation involves the phosphorylation of the residue: threonine 308 (Thr308) in the activation loop. The phosphorylation of Thr308 of downstream AKT substrates is rarely assessed.
Akt at Thr-308 rather both in cells and in vitro, indicating substrate (site) specificity determined by the specific PP2A B regulatory subunit at the intramolecular level.
VII. p38 MAPK
Mammalian p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are activated by a wide range of cellular stresses as well as in responses to inflammatory cytokines. P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases are a class of mitogen-activated protein kinases that are responsive to stress stimuli, such as cytokines, ultraviolet irradiation, heat shock, and osmotic shock, and are especially involved in cancer cell differentiation, apoptosis and autophagy.
Matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9), is a matrix, a class of enzymes that belong to the zinc-metalloproteinases family involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix. MMPs such as MMP9 was involved in the development of several human malignancies, such as tumor progression, including invasion, metastasis, growth and angiogenesis.
hTERT(Human Telomerase reverse transcriptase) is responsible for catalyzing the addition of nucleotides in a TTAGGG sequence to the ends of a chromosome’s telomeres. This addition of repetitive DNA sequences prevents degradation of the chromosomal ends following multiple rounds of replication. Over-expression of hTERT is often associated with cancers and tumor formation. It is a novel way to research new oncogene medicine by regulating hTERT.
Anticancer Technology Chemoprevention
The anti-cancermechanism of flavonoids isolated from thebotanicwere investigated.They can inhibit cancer cell well by alteringheat shock protein.Heat shock proteins play an important role for cell signaling and survival.Besides, we have designed and established various in vitro and in vivo cell- and gene-based bioassays, inflammatory system, and acute liver hepatitis, orthotopic and metastatic cancer models to identify novel phyto-compounds from herbs. These studies attempt to explore novel natural plant resources in Asia for future application as botanical supplements, medicinal foods, or botanical drugs for cancer prevention or therapy.
The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of flavonoids isolated from the botanic drug investigated. Our data indicate that flavonoidderivatives significantly inhibit the production ofNO and PGE2 autacoids in LPS-induced raw cell 264.7 murine macrophage cells. Moreover, it alsonotably decreased the secretion of tumor necrosisfactor-alpha (TNF-α).The activity of flavonoid derivatives might be caused by the inhibitionof iNOS and COX-2 expressions throughdownregulation of NF-κB and AP-1 binding.COX-2 and iNOS are two major inflammatory mediators implicated in colorectal inflammation and cancer.
Chalconoids, also known as chalcones, are natural phenols related to chalcone.
Its derivativesin traditional herbshave been found to potent (higher affinity than diazepine) GABA-A benzodiapine receptor positive allosteric modulator.
Cell signal Technology
Herbal phyto-compoundsand derivatives
adown regulateHeat shock protein (HSP)
aCancer cell Apoptosis